So-called “Kovel arrangements” provide unique opportunities for fund managers and their legal counsel to extend the attorney-client privilege to consultants. The context surrounding a Kovel arrangement plays just as significant a role in determining whether the privilege will be upheld as satisfying the legal requirements of the Kovel doctrine. There are certain circumstances – such as an internal investigation – under which Kovel arrangements are frequently employed by hedge funds and other companies. See “D.C. Circuit Confirms Applicability of Attorney-Client Privilege to Internal Investigations” (Aug. 7, 2014); and “Ten Recommendations to Help Hedge Fund Managers Conduct Successful Internal Investigations” (Feb. 28, 2013). However, there are additional specific situations when this approach can be particularly effective at protecting a hedge fund manager’s operations and processes from being exposed to the public. This final article in a three-part series describes those contexts in which hedge fund managers can benefit from having their attorneys engage consultants via Kovel arrangements, as well as situations where that possibility is tenuous or nonexistent. The first article outlined the Kovel doctrine’s legal requirements and key items to consider before deciding to waive or invoke the privilege. The second article contained practical guidance for maintaining a Kovel arrangement on a daily basis, as well as the provisions to include in an engagement letter with a consultant to ensure the privilege is upheld. For background information on how hedge funds can utilize compliance consultants, see “The Role of Outsourced Compliance Consultants in the Hedge Fund Compliance Ecosystem” (Jun. 27, 2014).